Free «Questions and Answers» Essay Sample
1). The demographic transition model is a graphic representation of population structure changes that are estimated to occur when countries shifts from traditional to industrialized settings. The four major phases of demographic changes are as follows: Phase 1 is the preindustrial state, phase 2 and 3 represents the transitional stages, and phase 4 represents the industrial state. The preindustrial stage is characterized by high birth and death rates. High birth rates are due to poor family planning methods, religious beliefs to have many children and high infant mortality rates which created the need to have many kids to replace those that die. High death rates were due to poor medical expertise, diseases, and famine. Phase 2 is characterized by declining death rates and steady birth rates. In stage 3, the levels of birth rates fall while death rates remain constant. The transitional period’s changes in death and birth rates are due to improved medical care, and diet, and preference for fewer children.
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Lastly, in the industrial stage, the birth rates, and death rates ultimately levels out due to family planning, improved standards of living and late marriages. The demographic transition model is a perfect match for the transition of developing countries. Most third world countries are characterized by high population densities due to high birth rates. Death rates are also high due to poor medical services and poverty. However, as most countries become more industrialized, their population growth rate decreases. The levels of birth rates and deaths rates decline to a steady-state.
2). As indicated by the Tomlinson's hypothesis, worldwide unicity infers to the union of various diverse connections of the world, for example, commercial centers, a division of work, shared biological systems, overall commercial centers, and form codes into one social setting. Tomlinson attests that globalization ideas result to trade and dispersion of thoughts, practices and effective improvements from different nations. These thoughts of globalization are propagated through innovation media, for example, the web, radio, and TV. At whatever point people in a specific region, compelled by particular society, grasp new thoughts, practices, or endeavor to adjust to new practices, their way of life is traded off. The social ties connected with that region are ruined by the reception of other outsider practices realized by globalization (Tomlinson, 1999).
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I believe Tomlinson's contention is persuading. Different cases can be utilized to bolster Tomlinson’s statements. Case in point, globalization has prompted an expansion of worldwide, two-sided and multilateral exchange. As a consequence of exchanging, new social ties have been created between individuals from various ethnicities. Family relationship ties set up through marriage and propels the wedded couples to surrender a few practices and conventions of their societies, and grasp a few customs and practices of another society. Such development of availability adulterates the way of life connected with individuals of a specific area. In my perspective, acquired society does not mix well with the local society of specific individuals (Tomlinson, 1999).
3). Samuel Huntington is of the opinion that civilization conflicts will be prevailing in the post-Cold War period because of various reasons. Firstly, the diversity of civilizations is a ground to ignite future conflicts. Civilizations are distinguished from each other by factors such as culture, tradition, religion, and history. I find this reason to be most convincing since; religion, language, culture and history are the main precipitators of tribalism, racism and other forms of discrimination that culminates to conflicts. Secondly, the world is reduced to a global village. The interactions between diverse civilizations facilitate different people to mingle. Thus, people become more aware of their pronounced differences and this creates room for conflicts.
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Thirdly, economic modernization and changes in social settings all over the world are separating people from their cultural identities. Fourthly, increased awareness of civilization differences is facilitated by the combined role of the West. Consequently, developing countries wind up trying to emulate ways of the West. Merging concepts of the West in different cultural settings creates room for conflicts. I find this fourth reason least convincing, since; incorporating other alien traditions into different cultures is an indication of global integration. Hence, unity is promoted. Fifth, cultural attributes and disparities are less inconsistent and for this reason, less readily compromised and resolved than political and economic ones. Lastly, the increasing economic regionalism is reinforcing the awareness of civilization differences hence, the possibility of conflicts.
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4). According to De Haas, seven migration myths twist our understanding of the relationship between migration and development. First, De Haas asserts that we live in an era of unprecedented migration. In the previous century, the proportion of global international migrations was almost similar to the levels of (2.5%-3%) in the present age. Second, poverty and misery are principal causes of migration due to search for labor. Third, development aid and trade liberalization are efficient solutions offered to curb migrations. Attempts to get rid of poverty in developing countries have proved sufficient in preventing labor migration.
Fourth, migration results to the brain drain in developing countries. Due to migration, most people opt to search for job opportunities beyond their country’s perimeters. Hence, extensive migration results in a situation where the population of skilled manpower in a country is less than the original population before migration. Fifth, remittances of migrants, are wasted on nonproductive financial activities. Migration leads to over-reliance on remittances. Sixth, the inclination of migrants towards their original countries is a pointer of the deficiency of social and economic integration in receiving countries. Lastly, De Haas asserts that countries can effectively curb or suppress migration without resorting to authoritarian measures. De Haas explains that “the key to promoting circular migration is to accord migrants with the right to migrate freely again if their return is unsuccessful to prevent forcing the migrants into settlements” (2005).