Free «China» Essay Sample
China had a weak economy with low productivity, extensive poverty, and a low level of inequality in 1978. The past three decades were characterized by dynamism in the transition from the original form of central planning to the expansion of markets, continuous change in economic expansion and a constant increase in social-economic inequalities. The rise of social-economic differences happened due to decline in central economic planning and overall economic policies. The modern China has a high rate of inequality, which is higher than that of Brazil and South Africa. The following are the inequalities that thrive in the Chinese society under current economic circumstances.
Education inequality has been observed in most parts of the modern China; lack of access to education has been the aspect of the difference brought by the inequality over the last three decades (Shi, 143). The difference in household income is a clear evidence of the differences in education level. The major aim of education is to boost the economy and increase income among the working class who are the elites; the increasing returns of education. The gap between the rich and the poor continues to rise significantly, and this happens due to the sharp difference in opportunities for accessing education. The cause of the education inequality is the urban-biased strategies, as well as the inland-coastal disparity. The consequences brought by the above disproportion include economic stagnation in education policies, demonstrations by different learning institutions that demand the change in education scheme as the current system only favors the individual income, etc.
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Income disparity is an issue for most China’s population. The gap between the rich and the poor is continuously increasing as the economic level rises. Despite the steady rise in China's economy after the economic reforms of 1978, the income gap between the rural and urban populations has grown in a period of thirty years. The data from the Chinese Bureau of Statistics indicates that the ratio of income of the urban population to that of the rural was 3.33:1 in 2009. The per capita income of town dwellers equaled RMB17175, and the one of rural households was RMB5153. In 1983, the income ratio was at its lowest: 1.83:1. This situation shows a tremendous increase in the income gap over the three decades. The income inequality is brought by the disproportions in the education system with 1% of the Chinese citizens possessing over a third of the wealth of the country. The problem of income disparity has a direct impact on the Chinese economy; it presses the middle and the lower class in terms of tax collection. When the living standard rises, a lower-income earner suffers the most.
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The inland-coastal inequality contributes much towards the income disparity in China. Rural-urban inequality is much more evidenced as compared to inland-coastal disparity; the style is very much different. The differences in Chinese geographical regions lead to the formation of overall income disproportion in China accounting for nearly twelve percent of the general income inequality. The main cause of inland-coastal inequality is the general geographic advantage that the coastal region claims. The difficulty of movement from inland to coastal provinces leads to accumulation of wealth in the inland regions, which include mainly industries and business ventures. The procedure causes income inequality, thereby expanding the gap between the rich and the poor. The above phenomenon has a great significance in economic growth. Lack of the market competitions may lead to the collapse of the growing economy of China. The situation also leads to the unequal distribution of resources due to few individuals that possess most of the country's resources at the top level.
Rural-urban inequality is inherent in the economy of China. The accumulation of wealth in urban areas provides more income for urban dwellers, creating greater economic differences between the two regions. People abandon farming to become involved in more profitable businesses in towns. The migration has a great impact on the agricultural sectors; the production in agriculture drops drastically, causing a decrease in the gross domestic product. The rural-urban disparity is caused by unequal distribution of resources by the national government. Most of the industries in China are located in urban centers as a result of the availability of labor. The industries also claim the high profits that result from a great number of customers and readily available transport systems.
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Wage inequality in the Chinese economy is evidenced in most parts of the population. The inequality brought by the education system where the rich have access to better education contributes much to wage differences (Whalley & John, 104). People mostly acquire skills needed to be employed in the universities and colleges. The wage depends on academic level and the degree of expertise, and those with high qualifications tend to take most of the high paying jobs. The high rate of urbanization leads to more opportunities for urban dwellers, which further boosts the wages for the people employed in big companies. The wage segmentation, which takes three forms (segmentation by province, profitability, and ownership), has a direct influence on the wage distribution. Most urban dwellers are entitled to much higher salaries due to high living standards.
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The 1995 CASS surveys indicate that wages formed twenty-one percent of rural income disparity in the year 1988 and forty-four percent in 1995. In a period of seven years, wages rose from eleven percent to twenty-six percent in rural incomes.
Health disparity is also a serious problem evidenced in most parts of the Chinese economy. The differences in income and the centralized system of health care make it difficult for some parts of the population to receive better health care. The increasing healthcare costs have only favored the rich and the high-income earners. The advancement in healthcare system widens the gap because the rural population and the middle class cannot afford the costs associated with it. The healthcare disparity has significant consequences as some people cannot access the advanced care, which is in application in most parts of the country.
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Chinese nationalism is a widely shared value both in the Chinese government and the entire society. Many international events by the social class and the government have developed on the sentiments of nationalism. The feeling of nationalism has led to the economic growth of Chinese economy and formation of trade alliances with the international organizations and international markets. The sudden rise of the economy of China was the result of the nationalism that was stressed by all social groups and the government. The formation of trade links and the diplomatic relations with foreign countries were the positive results brought by the nationalism.
The post-Tiananmen era was characterized by the stiff demonstrations and demand for change by the nationalists. The action forced the government to adopt new policies of tackling the economic challenges that the country was facing. The need to become rich and the achievement of the individual success were some of the motivating factors that initiated nationalism. The movement forced the state to enter into a good relation with the United States of America, which was seen as the most advanced nation in the world. The Chinese nationalists were in need of the stable economy and the unwillingness of the government to join the common trade with the USA was not met positively by the people.
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Most nationalists in China could not see the difference between the state and the nation; they treated the two as similar ideologies. Nationalism has created many ideas of progress, which initially the government could not implement. The ideas were characterized by political controls where feelings of the nationalists were controlled by the politicians. The situation made the nation a party-state. The Chinese nationalism could not be an identical force as it became part of the party-state. The full-fleded nationalism could be guaranteed only after the separation between the state and the nation and between state sovereignty and the national sovereignty.
The government established diplomatic links between China and other countries that brought tremendous changes in the social perceptions of the Chinese people and their government's approach to the two main Pacific powers. The perception of Japan and the United States of America created a sense of friendliness, and the Chinese leaders would refer to them as friends and trade partners rather than enemies.
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The policy programs brought by nationalism created a sense of scientific evolution, which led to the increase in Chinese inventions and the expansion of various researches. The nationalists declined the use of cheap labor and the government had to look for better ways of establishing wage system to take care of every Chinese worker.