Free «Training and Development» Essay Sample
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Training and development is very crucial to any given organization. It plays an important role in building a learning organization, which is very crucial for innovation and creativity in the modern organization. In Nike Corporation training, as well as development, it helps the firm to reduce randomness, as well as behavioral or learning changes do take place in a way that is structured. There are two training, as well as development approaches that are used in Nike, these include traditional approach and modern approach. Traditional approach is where an organization held a belief that leaders are born, thereby resulting into not taking training seriously within their organization. However, in modern approach, management embraces training as a tool of improving employee’s competence and helping them to adapt to every changing working environment. The training methods employed by the firm largely depend on the level of organizational structure. The company has different training methods for various groups within the organization. For instance, the firm has different training methods for the high top management, and at the same time uses different training methods for the subordinates. The firm can have either cognitive training methods or behavioral training methods.
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Cognitive methods are aimed at giving the trainees theoretical training. Different methods under this category tend to provide rules which should be followed when performing various duties within an organization. They provide verbal or written information which is accompanied with demonstrations of the concept being delivered to the trainees (Arthur 1995). The methods under this category focus at changing attitude and knowledge of the trainees through learning. The cognitive training methods include lectures, discussions, and training that is computer based. Moreover, behavioral training methods are used when the trainer wants to give trainees practical training. The methods in this category allow the employees to use the skills that they learn during the training session. The methods under this category can be effectively used in areas where the organization needs to improve the skills of its employees. Methods of training under this category include business games, role playing, case studies, and equipment simulator.
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Training Methods Used in Nike Corporation
Top Level Management
Nike Corporation uses a number of training methods to impact its top management with skills needed to run the organization effectively and efficiently. It uses the combination of behavioral methods and cognitive methods in training top level managers. The most effective methods that are used in training top high managers are simulations and games. Games can be defined as those spirited activities or exercises, where various trainees compete among themselves according to the rules that have been set. Simulation, however, entails making real life situations in a computer version. Simulation is all about imitating the real life situations.
Nike uses business games to train its high top management. The games are usually based on a given set of procedures, rules, principles, relationships, plans that are derived from various studies. In this method, managers are given some information. The information given to managers describes a certain situation and finally after going through the information, they are requested to make decisions that are aimed at favoring the company (Landale 1999). This training method is very effective at enabling mangers to apply information they learn from various sources to a given challenge that is facing the organization. The method has been used in the corporation to impact the top high management with decision-making skills. It has also been used within the firm to empower managers with the skills of using various studies to come up with decisions that are favorable to the organization.
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Role playing is another training method that is used in Nike Corporation to train the top high management. In this method, managers are given a role to play. Managers who are under training are given the information that is related to objectives, concerns, emotions, and responsibilities of the role to be played. Managers are given roles which they are expected to perform. Managers need to utilize their management skills in playing their role, in order to improve their management skills. Through the role playing, managers are trained on various aspects of management and how to use these skills in real life problems (Smith and Rebecca 2004).
Group discussion occurs when a trainee and trainer come together and talk about various cases studies. During these discussions, managers bring up questions, and each manager participates in the discussion by giving their experiences, suggestions, and answers. The approach has a number of benefits. There is open communication between managers, thus, they can give their view relating to the problems they face when handling customers and coming up with suggestions on how they can overcome challenges for the sake of improving the levels of their service delivery, in order to fully satisfy the customers’ needs.
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Case studies are cases relating to management of organizations, and they discuss with managers the real issues relating to management aspect. This technique has some benefits that are critical in achieving the expected results of the training. Firstly, managers are exposed to real life situations relating to various aspects of management. Secondly, the trainees can apply various systematical tools and provide the accounts of the training in detail. In precise circumstances, the application of regular tools may not be applicable in more than one situation. Finally, the trainer is supposed to be creative and highly skilled to provide leadership during discussions, keeping trainees on track, and making points and failure to have these qualities may hinder the agenda of the training in the long run.
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Nike Corporation uses a number of training methods to impact its subordinates with skills needed to perform their duties effectively and efficiently. It uses the permutation of cognitive and behavioral methods in training subordinates. The most efficient approaches that are used in training subordinates are simulations and games. Games can be defined as those spirited activities or exercises, where various trainees compete among themselves according to the rules that have been set. Simulation, however, entails making the real life situations in a computer version. Simulation is all about imitating the real life situations.
Nike uses business games to train their subordinates. The games are usually based on a given set of procedures, rules, principles, relationships, plans that are derived from various studies. In this method, the subordinates are given some data. The data given to the subordinates describe a certain work situation, and finally, after going through the data, they are required to apply the data in dealing with challenges that face them as they perform their duties. This training technique is very effective, as it enables the subordinates to use data they acquire from various sources to a given problem that they are facing as they perform their duties. The technique has been used in the firm to impact subordinates with skills on how to make work place decisions. It has also been used within the corporation to allow the employees with the skills of using various researches to come up with ways of performing their duties in a way that is positive to the organization.
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Role playing is another training technique that is used in Nike Corporation to train the subordinates. In this technique, the subordinates are given the role to perform. The subordinates who are under exercise are given data that are related to objectives, emotions, and responsibilities of the role to be performed (Cohn, Khurana, and Reeves 2005). The subordinates are given functions which they are expected to play. The subordinates need to utilize their technical skills in performing their roles, in order to develop their technical skills. Through role performing, the subordinates are trained on different aspects of their functions, and how to use the acquired skills in the real life challenges.
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Discussion occurs when a trainer and trainee come together and talk about various aspects of the issue at hand. During these discussions, the subordinates bring up questions, and every subordinate takes part in the discussion by giving his or her experiences and answers. The method has a number of advantages (Lombardo and Eichinger 1998). Communication should be open between the participants, thus, they can give their view relating to the problems they face when performing their duties, and come up with solution on how they can deal with problems for the purpose of service performance.
Case studies are cases relate to management of organizations, and they discuss with managers the real issues relating to the management aspect. This technique has some benefits that are critical in achieving the expected results of the training. Firstly, The subordinates in the firm are exposed to the real life situations relating to different aspects of their work. Secondly, the trainees can use different systematical tools, and can provide the accounts of the training in detail; this may hamper the goal of the training, in the long run.
Lectures are another method that is used in the firm to train the subordinates. The method is used in creating understanding of the topic of training, and influencing attitudes and different behaviors among the employees. The method is widely used by the firm to train the new employees on the firm’s values, organizational culture, and the mission of the organization. The method has also been used effectively to train the subordinates when new changes are introduced in the firm. The trainer usually presents his lectures in oral or written form. The goal of using lectures in the organization is usually intended to impact the subordinates with knowledge, and give them theory of what is expected from them. In order to make this method more productive, the trainer should use an interactive approach during his lectures with an aim of encouraging them to participate in the training (Anthony 1999).
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Finally, the firm has been using demonstration as a method of training its subordinate employees. The method is widely used in training workers from technical departments, such as manufacturing on what is expected of them from their roles. The trainer in this method uses various visual displays of the tasks that they expected to perform. The method aims at focusing the subordinate’s attention on the important areas of the task they are performing. The method has been widely used in Nike when the firm has introduced a new technology, which the employees need to use in their day to day duties. The method is very effective and helps to easily understand the topic of training.
Training and development methods have been used in different organizational levels to impact all members of the organization with skills needed for them to perform various duties. The organization cannot survive in the modern competitive environment without investing heavily in training, as well as development of its employees. Nike has employed various modern training methods to impact its employees with the required skills.